1802 to 1813
Münster has to endure five changes of nationality and Land constitution. In 1802, the city is occupied by Prussian troops under General Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. In 1803, the prince-bishopric Münster is dissolved based on the Final Recess of the Imperial Deputation. The Napoleonic period from 1805 to 1813 was characterised by war, military occupation, and foreign rule. Being a part of the Grand Duchy of Berg for a brief period, the city is soon incorporated directly into the French Empire and becomes the capital of the Lippe département. In November 1813, Prussian troops again march into Münster.
Westphalia is ultimately adjudged to the Kingdom of Prussia by the Congress of Vienna. Münster becomes the capital of the new province of Westphalia, residence of the Oberpräsidenten (Senior President) for the governmental administration and the Generalkommando (General Command) of the VII. Corps.
Introduction of the Revidierte Städteordnung (Revised Directions of Municipal Self-administration) of 1831; a first step back to communal self-administration.
On May 25, 9:30 in the morning, the first train sets forth from Münster to Hamm. The railway building was still under construction. Finally, in 1870, Münster is bypassed by the continuous railway Paris-Hamburg.
While in March people are taking to the streets throughout Germany and demonstrating for freedom and political participation, people in Münster protest because of economical hardship. In November, political events take place.
The “Kulturkampf” (Culture Struggle), the skirmish between the liberal state (which was moreover protestant in Prussia) and the Catholic Church, rages especially intensely in Münster. Bishop Johann Bernhard Brinkmann, refusing to yield to government pressure, is forced to flee to the Netherlands in order to abscond from imprisonment. The Catholic population in Münster and the Münsterland rallies behind its shepherd enthusiastically. His return from exile in the year 1884 is celebrated by Münster’s citizens as a triumph.
The city, constricted by the corset of the promenade, is prevented from growing for a long time. The urban area multiplies by incorporating portions of the country communities of Lamberti, St. Mauritz, and Überwasser.
Hermann Landois, former priest, grammar school teacher, and associate professor for zoology from 1873, establishes the Westphalian Zoological Garden, which is pompously inaugurated on June 26. It is the first zoo in Westphalia. Landois († 1905) is worshipped as a unicum and historical original even today.
The inauguration of the port in Münster and the completion of the Dortmund-Ems Canal are highly acclaimed. The ancient dream of a waterway connection with the North Sea comes true.