Zeitachse

1555
Peace of Augsburg
1608/9
The Protestant princes unite to form the "Union", the Catholic princes unite to form the "Liga"
1618
The "Prague Defenestration" leads to the outbreak of the Thirty Years´ War
1619
Calvinist electoral prince Friedrich V of the Palatine is elected king of Bohemia
1620
Defeat of Friedrich V in the battle of the Weißen Berg, near Prague
1622
Westphalia´s early involvement in the war is caused by the "Toller Christian"
Battle of Hoechst: Tilly defeats Christian

1623
Battle of Stadtlohn: Christian of Braunschweig is completely defeated
1625
King Christian IV of Denmark enters the war
1626
Tilly defeats the Danish king at the battle of Lutter am Barenberge
1629
Peace of Lübeck with Denmark; Wallenstein obtains mild peace conditions
Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II issues the Edict of Restitution

1630
King Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden lands on the German coast of the Baltic Sea
Wallenstein dismissed by the electoral princes at Regensburg

1631
French-Swedish Alliance, the "Treaty of Bärwalde"
Tilly defeated near Breitenfeld
Gustavus II Adolphus´s march of victory begins and ends in Munich
Wallenstein is ordered back
1632
Tilly is mortally wounded
Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden is killed

1633
Hessian troops advance into the Münsterland
Sweden allies with Protestant princes of Southern Germany in the "Heilbronner Bund"

1634
Wallenstein dismissed and murdered
Sweden deafeated near Nördlingen
Münster is sieged by Protestant troops

1635
Peace of Prague is concluded between the emperor Ferdinand II, the "Liga" and Saxony
France enters the war
1637
Ferdinand III succeeds his father Ferdinand II
1641
The Swedish - French Alliance is renewed in Hamburg
Münster and Osnabrück are chosen to be the sites for peace negotiations

1643
Münster and Osnabrück are declared neutral
Estates of the empire are admitted to Parliament
Arrival of the first peace ambassadors
1644
Arrival of the peace negotiators Chigi and Contarini
1645
Defeat of the emperor´s army near Jankau
Duc de Longueville and Graf Trautmannsdorff arrive in Münster: serious negotiations begin

1646
Swedish troops ravage Westphalia
Duchesse de Longueville arrives in Münster

1647
Ceasefire in Ulm
Spanish envoy Joseph de Bergaigne dies in Münster
Münster´s doctor Bernhard Rottendorff makes an appeal for peace

1648
The Spanish-Dutch Peace is concluded on January 30th and ratified on May 15th
Peace Treaties between France and Sweden are officially signed on October 24th

1649
The city of Münster celebrates the ratification of the treaties on February 22
1650
The implementation of the Peace of Westphalia, negotiated in Nuremberg since 1649, is finally concluded
1654
Swedish troops evacuate Vechta, signifying the complete departure of occupying forces
1659
The Peace of the Pyrenees ends the conflict between France and Spain


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